Here is my ever growing list of synth terms:
Oscillator: Generates the base, starting sound.
Waveform: The oscillator can generate different shaped sound waves. A few of the most common analog are square, saw, and triangle.
Filter: A sound modulator that shapes the waveform after it has been created by the oscillator. The sound wave is shaped by letting portions of the sound pass.
Patch: The sum of all the connections within the modular synthesizer resulting in the final sound.
I will be adding more terms as I continue post about my modular synthesis experiences, so check back often.